Tag Archives: LIDAR

ARTE-Sendung Archäologie 2.0 – Mit Hightech auf Spurensuche

Der europäische Kultursender ARTE zeigt am Samstag, den 17. Juni 2017 um 22.40 Uhr in Erstausstrahlung den neuen Dokumentarfilm „Archäologie 2.0 – Mit Hightech auf Spurensuche“, der von Radio Bremen unter Regie von Susanne Brahms produziert wurde.
„Altertum trifft auf hippe Technik: In Berlin entwickeln Archäologen gemeinsam mit Game-Designern virtuelle Kopien beschädigter Stätten, wie die eines Tempels in Aleppo. In Irland suchen Wissenschaftler mit geophysikalischen Methoden nach den sagenumwobenen Ringwallanlagen und jungsteinzeitlichen Hügelgräbern. Eine Reise in die virtuelle Vergangenheit…“, so die Ankündigung auf der ARTE Mediathek-Webseite, wo schon jetzt vorab ein Filmtrailer zu sehen ist.
Dabei stapelt der Filmtitel genau genommen eigentlich zu tief: Denn das, was gezeigt wird, ist er aktuelle State-of-the-Art in den archäologischen Wissenschaften zu digitalbasierten Prospektionen, Visualisierungen, Analysen, vernetzten Daten und Informationen sowie Archivierungen, der über erste größere Digitalisierungsmaßnahmen und Anwendungen seit den 1990er Jahre weit hinausgeht, was man als Archäologie 2.0 bezeichnen könnte. So wird ein Großteil des weitgefächerten Spektrums der modernen Archäologie 4.0 vorgestellt – besonders im Hinblick auf virtuelle Räume und neue Präsentationsmöglichkeiten für die Museologie, die archäologisches Wissen interaktiv und virtuell (an-)fassbar für neue Besuchergruppen erschließt. Des Weiteren wird gezeigt, dass der „Quantensprung“ der Wissensvermehrung in der Archäologie in den letzten Jahrzehnten maßgeblich durch den konsequenten Einsatz von digitalen Methoden bedingt ist, wie der Film sehr anschaulich verdeutlicht und zwar anhand der systematischen Auswertung von per Befliegungen erhobenen LiDAR-Laserscandaten für die Landschaftsarchäologie, die mit der massenhaften Erkennung von bisher unbekannten Bodendenkmalen einhergeht. Dabei wird ein ganz neues Bild einer prähistorischen Kulturlandschaft aufgezeigt, das den Menschen u.a. nun auch in den Kontext größerer, überregionaler Beziehungen stellt und damit grenzüberschreitende Vergleiche weit besser ermöglicht.

LiDAR-Geländemodell in Kombination mit den ebenfalls georeferenzierten, geophysikalischen Prospektionen prähistorischer Erdwerke in Irland im EU-Projekt ArcLand.

Pattern recognition and archaeology – Semi-automated detection of ground monuments in airborne laser scan data (LiDAR)

In recent years, LiDAR scanning has become a widely used tool for understanding both the cultural and natural landscape surrounding us. The result of this is, that new 3-dimensional point based LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) data is consistently being generated in a more precise and detailed version of raw point cloud form.

Airborne laser scan data includes information about the ground surface as well as the existing vegetation allowing to virtually remove for instance forests to reveal hidden structures. Even ground monuments which are heavily eroded and/or very flat can be detected by this approach. (Interpolated) surface models are often used to visualize the findings.

Available LiDAR scans of the Bavarian State Office for Surveying and Geoinformation for the district of Lower Franconia with its 8531 km2 as our test area accumulates to 2.8 TB of data. An editor familiar with the data can process approximately 30 km2 per day, resulting in 1.2 years for a one-time analysis of Lower Franconia and already ten years for the state Bavaria. Continuous and iterative explorations increase the amount of data to be handled and lead to time frames not feasible for research.

In order to cope with the increasing amount of spatial and radiometric information, a systematic and semi-automated process needs to be defined in order to control and handle these accumulated amounts of otherwise unrestrained information. Thus the collaborate project intends to focus on the development of technologies and methodologies for the creation of an interactive research data gateway.

The utilization of LiDAR data provides a novel approach for locating and monitoring cultural heritage in the landscape, especially in areas of logistical complications, e.g. forest, rough terrain, and remote areas. However, the utilisation of LiDAR presently lacks standardised approaches for proper handling, developing, and processing within the field of cultural heritage management. Further, a majority of stakeholders within the field of archaeology and cultural heritage management encounters various problems regarding macro- and micromanagement when handling and processing LiDAR data, often resolving in quantitative assessment being impractical or impossible. Thus, in order for LiDAR data to become a truly competent method for heritage management, a large scale quantitative approach for handling, developing, and processing needs to be formed and defined. Such is the background, premise and resolve for this project.

Hügelgräberdetail+Hügelgräber_Wald

Figure 1: On the left no archaeological ground monuments can be seen in the aerial image of the forest nearby Urphar (at River Main, District Unterfranken in Germany). With the point signature finds of ceramic shards of the late Bronze Age are marked in Geographic Information System (GIS). The sits information is taken from the databases of the Bavarian State Office for the Preservation of Historical Monuments, which is a partner of our project. The right picture shows the LIDAR scan of the so called DGM1 ground surface of the Bavarian State Office for Surveying and Geoinformation in the same area without any disturbing vegetation. It uncovers a group of prehistoric grave hills. These were previously unknown because they are heavily eroded and very flat. The funnel in the center of each burial mounds gives information about illegal grave robberies.

 

Sub-project

The sub-project, LiDAR based semi-automatic pattern recognition within an archaeological landscape, is focused on adapting and creating semi-automatic procedures for handling and processing LiDAR data within cultural heritage monument detection and large scale cultural heritage management.

Particular emphasis is on the implementation of pattern recognition algorithms for semi-automatic detection within 3dimensional vector and 2dimensional raster data.

In doing so, the effort of this project will be focused on pattern recognition algorithms in order to define quantitative methods of handling and processing 3dimensional LiDAR data and subsequent 2dimensional raster by implementing standardised and state of the art systematic and semi-automated approaches for cultural heritage detection and management.

Besides state of the art algorithms for automatic procedures of cultural heritage detection and management, the result of the project will also be focused on key technologies regarding data life cycle in joint collaboration with the Software Methods Group (SWM) and the KIT (Karlsruhe Institute of Technology). The joint collaboration will be focused on data sustainability, and optimizing visualisation procedures for differentiated fields of focus.

 

Acknowledgments

In addition to the Bavarian State Offices for Sites and Monuments (Bayerisches Landesamt für Denkmalpflege) and the Environment (Bayerisches Landesamt für Umwelt), we would particularly like to thank the Bavarian State Office for Surveying and Geoinformation (Bayerisches Landesamt für Vermessung und Geoinformation) for providing access to unpublished data like the DTM1s. Without the cooperation of these authorities this project and associated project, Transformation of Settlement Sites from Late Antiquity to the Early Middle Ages in Lower Franconia, would not have been possible.

LiDAR based semi-automatic pattern recognition within an archaeological landscape

A PhD-project in association with Dr. Armin Volkmann (Junior Research Group Digital Humanities and Digital Cultural Heritage at the Interdisciplinary Center for Scientific Computing and Cluster of Excellence Asia & Europe in Global Context), Prof. Dr. Alexander Zipf and Jun.-Prof. Bernhard Höfle (Geoinformatics), Prof. Dr. Diamantis Panagiotopoulos (Institute of Archaeology), and funded by the HGS MathComp Graduate School at Heidelberg University. In further collaboration with Bayerisches Landesamt für Vermessung (BLV) und Denkmalpflege (BLD), and Karlsruhe Institut für Technologie (KIT).

The project is focused on adapting and creating semi-automatic procedures for handling and processing LiDAR data within cultural heritage monument detection and large scale cultural heritage management. Particular emphasis is on the implementation of pattern recognition algorithms for semi-automatic detection within 3D, 2½D, and 2D LiDAR derived data.

The utilization of LiDAR provides several novel approaches for locating and monitoring cultural heritage, especially in areas of logistical complications, e.g. forest, rough terrain, and remote areas (cf. figure 1 & 2). In order to cope with the huge amount of generated 3D LiDAR point clouds, systematic and semi-automated procedures needs to be defined to control and handle these accumulated amounts of otherwise unrestrained information.

In doing so, the effort of this project will be focused on pattern recognition algorithms to define quantitative methods of handling and processing 3D LiDAR data and subsequent 2D raster by implementing standardised and state of the art systematic and semi-automated approaches for cultural heritage detection and management.

Further, a research data gateway will be created within a WebGIS for extended parameterization of 2D and 3D LiDAR data with added databases of archaeological site information.

Figure 1.  Multiple layers on reality. Combining laser scanning for optimal scaling possibilities together with other sources, often reveal new features yet unknown. Figure 1 displays airborne and terrestrial laser scanning combined with street map at the Königstuhl, Heidelberg. New features detected; a house, two cellar structures, and several pathway and terrace systems dating back to the 16th and 17th century. Source: ALS Landesamt für Geoinformation und Landentwicklung Baden-Württemberg. TLS: Höfle, Pfeiffer and Raun. Map: OpenStreetMap.

Figure 1.
Multiple layers on reality. Combining laser scanning for optimal scaling possibilities together with other sources, often reveal new features yet unknown. Figure 1 displays airborne and terrestrial laser scanning combined with street map at the Königstuhl, Heidelberg. New features detected; a house, two cellar structures, and several pathway and terrace systems dating back to the 16th and 17th century. Source: ALS Landesamt für Geoinformation und Landentwicklung Baden-Württemberg. TLS: Höfle, Pfeiffer and Raun. Map: OpenStreetMap.

Figure 2. Revealing landscape. Underneath the underwood on Reussenberg near Karsbach, several new details arise in the interpolated landscape around the 13th century Reussenburg ruin. Source: ALS and historical maps: Bayerisches Landesamt für Vermessung.

Figure 2.
Revealing landscape. Underneath the underwood on Reussenberg near Karsbach, several new details arise in the interpolated landscape around the 13th century Reussenburg ruin. Source: ALS and historical maps: Bayerisches Landesamt für Vermessung.

 

 

Doctoral Scholarship “Feature Extraction from High Resolution Spatial Data Sets” in the domain of forensic sciences related to archaeology, palaeography and geography

The Junior Research Group “Forensic Computational Geometry Laboratory” (FCGL) at the Interdisciplinary Center for Scientific Computing (IWR) in cooperation with the
Heidelberg Graduate School for Mathematical and Computational Methods in the
Sciences (HGS MathComp) offers one doctoral scholarship to improve the
understanding of complex material, cultural and social topics by analyzing tangible
objects. This vision is aligned with institutional strategy of the Heidelberg University in the framework of the 2nd German Excellency Initiative.
As the FCGL bridges the Computational Science with the Forensic Sciences its main task
is the collaborative development of new methods to gather and examine information of the
past. This is performed on objects of different size from coins and ceramics to landscapes altered by ancient civilizations. The core tool of the FCGL is the GigaMesh software framework consisting of a modular extensible mesh processing pipeline to achieve the examination on high resolution measurement data provided by different types of 3D-scanners and exploration of contained information.

Full text and contact:

http://www.iwr.uni-heidelberg.de/groups/ngg/People/mara/Heidelberg_IWR_FCGL_Doctoral_Scholarship.pdf

http://www.iwr.uni-heidelberg.de/groups/ngg/People/mara/#openposition

New Junior Research Group “Digital Humanities and Digital Cultural Heritage” at Cluster of Excellence “Asia and Europe in a Global Context”, University of Heidelberg

The aim of the JRG Digital Humanities is the establishment of knowledge for digital methods and standards in the humanities and the arts. The spectrum of the young discipline of digital humanities ranges from the corpus linguistics through computer philology to applied computer sciences. The JRG thus complements the ongoing projects of the Heidelberg Research Architecture (HRA) in the field of digital cultural heritage, which involve issues revolving around the standardization of workflows and the digitization and treatment of heterogeneous data sets (text, sound, images, and data). In addition, the JRG supports the HRA with the conceptual development of the teaching of innovative methods of digital humanities at Heidelberg University and are planning to jointly organize workshops, training sessions, and seminars at different levels of knowledge for specific target groups.

Within the framework of this research group we examines discourses linked to new possibilities in the use of digital methods in archeology and evaluates opportunities and risks associated with big research datasets. This will results in standardized workflows for further archaeological investigations. We are also part of a team which works with GIS and LIDAR laser scanning data (2D and 3D modelling) in cooperation with a network of various research institutions within a digital research infrastructure. Furthermore, we  are developing VREs (virtual research environments) for specific workflows such as the digitization of sub-projects in the humanities and arts.

http://www.asia-europe.uni-heidelberg.de/en/research/jrg/jrg-digital-humanities.html

2 Doctoral Scholarships in “Archaeological Information Systems” and “GIScience/Geoinformatics”

The Junior Research Group “Digital Humanities/Digital Cultural heritage” of the Cluster of Excellence “Asia and Europe in a Global Context,” in cooperation with the “Heidelberg Graduate School for Mathematical and Computational Methods in the Sciences”, offers two doctoral scholarships with focus on “Archaeological Information Systems” and “Digital Cultural heritage”.

Within the framework of the research group we will look at discourses linked to changes of new possibilities in the use of digital methods in archeology. Opportunities and risks associated with big research data sets will be ascertained. This results in standardized workflows that serve further investigations. We work on a team with GIS and laser scan data (2D and 3D modeling) in cooperation with a research network of various institutions within a digital research infrastructure. And we also develop VREs (Virtual Research Environments) for specific digitalization workflows of sub-projects in archaeology.

The successful applicants’ primary task will be to complete a PhD degree, but active participation in relevant graduate courses offered at the Cluster of Excellence or other institutes at Heidelberg University is recommended. The stipends are rated at € 1200 to 1468/month. Access to travel and publication funding is available.

Candidates must hold an M.A. or equivalent in a relevant discipline of Pre- and Early History (“Ur- und Frühgeschichte”), Historical Sciences, GIScience /Geoinformatics, Landscape Archaeology and Geomatics or Archaeological Information Systems (“Archäoinformatik”) etc. and experience in archaeological fieldwork methods in Europe and/or Asian contexts. Proficiency in English is mandatory. German and French language skills are desirable. An interest in interdisciplinary collaboration is essential.

To apply, send curriculum vitae, academic transcripts, an outline of a dissertation project (2-3 pages) related to the research group, names and contact details of two referees, and one written sample (altogether in one PDF) via email to Dr. Armin Volkmann (armin.volkmann[at]asia-europe.uni-heidelberg.de). Stipend start should be in 2013, review of applications will continue until the positions are filled.

Heidelberg University is an equal opportunity/affirmative-action employer. In case of equality of qualification and suitability of applicants, the applications made by female researchers will be given preferential consideration. We also encourage and welcome applications from disabled persons.

For additional information see: http://www.asia-europe.uni-heidelberg.de/en

Semi-automatisierte Detektion von Bodendenkmälern in Airborne-Laserscandaten (LIDAR)

In den letzten Jahren sind durch systematische Befliegungen der Vermessungsämter der einzelnen Bundesländer hochauflösende Airborne-Laserscandaden (LIDAR) erhoben worden, aus denen sehr detaillierte 3-dimensionale Modelle der Geländeoberfläche (Geländemodelle) erstellt werden können.[1] Die Messpunktdichte liegt im wenigen Dezimeterbereich, sodass auch sehr kleinräumige Objekte unter einem Meter Größe dargestellt werden können. Diese Geländemodelle werden üblicherweise bisher meist in der Vermessungskunde, Kartografie, Bauleitplanung und den Hochwassermanagement eingesetzt. Für die Archäologie ist ihr Einsatz recht neu, wobei erste Projekte das hohe Erkenntnispotential verdeutlichen (vgl. Volkmann im Druck, 249-251). Das Innovative an LIDAR-Geländemodellen ist, dass durch die Verwendung des sogenannten „zweiten Meßsignals“ die Vegetationsbedeckung herausgerechnet werden kann (vgl. Opitz 2012, 16). So können bei der Interpolation der Geländemodelle auch kleinste Bodenerhebungen, als letzte Spuren von einstigen anthropogenen Bodeneingriffen, durch „Überhöhung“ sichtbar gemacht werden (vgl. Mark 1992). Dies ist beispielsweise von besonderer Relevanz in Waldgebieten, die aufgrund der störenden Vegetation der Bäume für klassische archäologische Prospektionsverfahren (systematische Oberflächenbegehungen), aber auch Geophysikalische Prospektionen nicht geeignet sind. In den Wäldern sind daher noch zahlreiche unbekannte Bodendenkmäler, die bisher nicht entdeckt wurden und so in archäologischen Studien nicht auswertbar sind. So ist anhand von mikroregionalen Studien, die eine Untersuchungsfläche systematisch und flächendeckend prospektierten, davon auszugehen, dass meist nur ca. 10% der Bodendenkmäler überhaupt bekannt sind. Die Dunkelziffer der zu 90% unbekannten Bodendenkmäler kann durch die systematische Anwendung von LIDAR erheblich gesenkt werden. Dies ist nicht nur für das Cultural Heritage des Management und die Erfassung des Weltkulturerbes der Denkmale ein Desiderat, sondern auch im Rahmen der Bauleitplanungen können so archäologische Verdachtsflächen präziser ausgewiesen werden, was eine größere Planungssicherheit für die Investoren ermöglicht. Für quantitative Untersuchungen der archäologischen Wissenschaften, ist es essentiell notwendig möglichst viele (im äußerst seltenen Idealfall alle) Bodendenkmäler einer Region zu kennen, um sich so der ehemaligen „prähistorischen Wirklichkeit“ annähern zu können. Dieses Forschungsfeld wird als Landschaftsarchäologie bezeichnet, innerhalb der komplexe, prähistorische Besiedlungsmuster des Verhältnisses von Burgen, Siedlungen, Wegenetze und Friedhöfe etc. zueinander analysiert werden.
In den Landesvermessungsämtern liegen mittlerweile gigantische Datenmengen an Airborne-Laserscandaten (LIDAR) vor. Um diese Datensätze für die oben genannten Fragestellungen effektiv und vor allem systematisch auswerten zu können, müssen Instrumentarien entwickelt werden, die dies in einem standardisierten Workflow erlauben (vgl. Hesse 2012, 176f.). Bisher sind die LIDAR-Daten meist nur im Einzelfall, oft ergänzend zu herkömmlichen archäologischen Ausgraben, eingesetzt worden. Dies sind dann aber nur Fallbeispiele, die zwar Rückschlüsse auf analoge Befunde erlauben, jedoch keine empirisch belegbaren Aussagen in quantitativen Studien zulassen.

[1] Siedlungsraumtransformationen der Spätantike bis zum Frühmittelalter am Main

Literatur:
R. Hesse, The changing picture of archaeological landscapes: lidar prospection over very large areas as part of a cultural heritage strategy. In: R.-S. Opitz/D.-C. Cowley (Ed.) Interpreting archaeological topography (2012) 171-183.
Z. Kokalj/K.Zaksek/K. Ostir, Visualisations of lidar derived relief models. In: S. R.-S. Opitz/D.-C. Cowley (Ed.) Interpreting archaeological topography (2012) 100-114.
H. Mara/S. Krömker/S. Jakob/B. Breuckmann, GigaMesh and Gilgamesh – 3D Multiscale Integral Invariant Cuneiform Character Extraction. In: A. Artusi/M. Joly-Parvex/G. Lucet/ A. Ribes/D. Pitzalis (Ed.), The 11th International Symposium on Virtual Reality, Archaeology and Cultural Heritage VAST (2010). http://uni-heidelberg.academia.edu/HubertMara
R. Mark, Multidirectional, oblique-weighted, shaded-relief image of the Island of Hawaii http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1992/of92-422/
R.-S. Opitz, An overview of airborne and terrestrial laser scanning in archaeology. In: R.-S. Opitz/D.-C. Cowley (Ed.) Interpreting archaeological topography (2012) 100-114.
A. Volkmann, Siedlung – Klima – Migrationen: Geoarchäologische Forschungen zur Oderregion zwischen 700 vor und 1000 nach Chr. mit Schwerpunkt auf der Völkerwanderungszeit (Bonn 2013).